The Universe is full of variety.
From individual particles to ultramassive black holes, the Universe contains it all.
All bound structures possess many physical properties.
Mass, alone, can roughly determine their natures.
Individual atoms are minuscule: between 10-30 and 10-28 grams.
They combine, forming heavier molecules, typically up to ~10-24 grams.
Various molecules bind together, forming dust grains beginning at ~10-14 grams.
Bigger grains make larger irregular “clumps,” up to masses of ~1019 kilograms.
Above that, however, objects reach hydrostatic equilibrium.
Ice-rich objects become spheroidal at ~3 × 1019 kg, while rocky/metallic objects require ~3 × 1020 kg.
They’ll remain solid-surfaced until exceeding ~1025 kg: about double Earth’s mass.
Above that, objects become gas-rich, like Neptune/Saturn, up to ~1027 kg.
The heaviest planets achieve Jupiter-like self-compression: up to ~2-3 × 1028 kg.
Above that deuterium fusion begins, creating a brown dwarf star.
At 1.5 × 1029 kg, hydrogen fusion occurs, indicating a full-fledged star.
Stars born above ~8 × 1029 kg evolve into planetary nebula/white dwarf combinations.
Stars above ~2 × 1031 kg go supernova, becoming neutron stars or black holes.
More massive stellar remnants always remain black holes, without upper mass limits.
Mostly Mute Monday tells an astronomical story in images, visuals, and no more than 200 words. Talk less; smile more.