- Pathological narcissism is rare. It impacts an estimated 1 percent of the population.
- Narcissism is tied closely to leadership emergence, as narcissists tend to initially be confident, charismatic, and charming. Leadership is a natural goal for narcissists because it feeds their motivational goals of status, power, and attention.
- Psychologists W. Keith Campbell, (Ph.D.) and Carolyn Crist explain why narcissists rise to power.
The term narcissist is commonly used to refer to people who appear to be arrogant or entitled. It’s easy to refer to someone who talks a lot about themselves or their accomplishments as a narcissist, but what does the word really mean?
Narcissism is viewed on a spectrum. The trait itself is normally characterized by people scoring near the middle of the spectrum and a few rare individuals at either end.
How do you score narcissism?
The Narcissistic Personality Inventory (referred to by physicians as the NPI) was developed by Robert Raskin and Calvin S. Hall in 1979. Scores on this scale range from 0-40, with the average tending to fall in the low-mid teens, according to Psychology Today.
The difference between pathological narcissism and narcissism is important.
Pathological narcissism (which is actually a personality disorder referred to as narcissistic personality disorder) is rare. It impacts an estimated 1 percent of the population. It is a mental condition in which people have an inflated sense of their own importance, a deep need for excessive attention/admiration, troubled relationships (because of this), and an astounding lack of empathy for others.
This disorder is suspected when a person’s narcissistic traits (listed above) begin to impair their daily functions.
“Leadership is a natural goal for narcissists because it feeds their motivational goals of status, power, and attention.” – Psychology Today
Leadership can be a complex topic to discuss, as the psychology of leadership can be classified in two distinct ways: leadership emergence (the rise to power) and leadership effectiveness (what happens once the person has power).
Narcissists initially appear charming and confident, making them great for leadership emergence.
Narcissism is tied closely to leadership emergence, as narcissists tend to initially be confident, charismatic, and charming (then later perceived as vain or arrogant). However, narcissism may not be great for effective leadership. Once someone rises to power and gains trust, it doesn’t always mean they are going to be effective at being a leader to those people.
Many positions are self-elected, and narcissists will jump at this chance.
Education, politics, and businesses are typically set up to allow potential leaders to self-elect and move forward with their own goals. Even when leaders are selected by committees or groups, they may be more inclined to go with a high-visibility, confident, high-profile candidate over someone who exudes leadership qualities in a more muted way.
Many systems favor loud, narcissistic individuals over quiet, effective leaders.
“Sometimes it feels like our systems are set up to select these narcissistic individuals,” explain W. Keith Campbell, (Ph.D.) and Carolyn Crist in Psychology Today. “The democratic election process can also feel like a popularity contest, where the biggest ego wins. Even this year, candidates have created polarized followings on social media.”
People desire a leader who promises stability and direction during challenging times.
Narcissists who come to power during chaotic and difficult times often quickly gain the support of their followers because they make promises of stability and have a clear direction in mind. The problem with this is that it can lead to detrimental leaders, such as Adolf Hitler. Hitler rose to power during a time when Germany’s economy was struggling to recover after the First World War, promising to rebuild and strengthen the country.
Narcissistic leaders may be able to temporarily convince you everything is being handled effectively.
Followers who believe their leader acts in their best interest are more likely to be happy with that leadership. When you have a leader who is repeating over and over that they are making effective, meaningful, positive changes (even if they aren’t), people are more inclined to believe it.
“We’ve seen this over the years at many levels of the government—from the presidential suite all the way down to the local mayor’s office,” explains Campbell and Crist.
How do we avoid electing and supporting narcissistic, ineffective leaders in the future?
Campbell and Crist have a few ideas about that in their book “The New Science of Narcissism” – the main takeaway being this: “Our best bet is to watch how they act and treat others and then respond accordingly when they look for the next position of power.”