Arthur Guseni Oliver Mutambara, a Zimbabwean political figure and scholar has served as the President of a faction of the Movement for Democratic Change since February 2006, a position previously held by secretary general Welshman Ncube. The Movement for Democratic Change split in 2005 after a dispute over whether or not to participate in Zimbabwean parliamentary election. Born May 25, 1966, Mutambara was a strong voice in the Zimbabwean student movement in 1988 and 1989, leading anti-government protests at the University of Zimbabwe, which led to his eventual arrest and detention. He continued his education as a Rhodes scholar at Merton College, Oxford in the United Kingdom, obtaining a Ph.D. in Robotics and Mechatronics. In his field he had taught at a number of universities in the United States including the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and has published three books on engineering including: Design and Analysis of Control Systems, Decentralized Estimation, and Control for Multisensor Systems and Mechatronics and Robotics. Additionally, he has served as a professor of Business Strategy and as a consultant for the management-consulting firm McKinsey & Company. Since September 2003 he has worked as the Managing Director and CEO of Africa Technology and Business Institute.